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Khamis, Mac 04, 2010

Mengatasi Masalah Mengenal Abjad B dan D

shai: a'kumm k.g...nak tanye camne nak memudahkan murid kenal huruf..dah mcm2 care sy buat..baru sebut huruf bile d tanye tkebil2..dah masuk bln 3 huruf a x lepas lg

Memandangkan saya kurang sihat hari ini, berikut adalah artikel yang saya kira boleh membantu Shai dan rakan-rakan lain untuk mengatasi masalah murid mengenal abjad b dan d. Teknik yang digunakan adalah bed poster.

Studies from the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development have shown that for children with difficulties learning to read, a multisensory teaching method is the most effective teaching method.

This is especially crucial for a dyslexic child. But what does it mean?

Using a multisensory teaching approach means helping a child to learn through more than one of the senses. Most teaching in schools is done using either sight or hearing (auditory sensations). The child’s sight is used in reading information, looking at diagrams or pictures, or reading what is on the teacher’s board. The sense of hearing is used in listening to what the teacher says. A dyslexic child may experience difficulties with either or both of these senses. The child’s vision may be affected by difficulties with tracking, visual processing or seeing the words become fuzzy or move around. The child’s hearing may be satisfactory on a hearing test, but auditory memory or auditory processing may be weak.

The answer is to involve the use of more of the child’s senses, especially the use of touch and movement (kinetic). This will give the child’s brain tactile and kinetic memories to hang on to, as well as the visual and auditory ones.

An example

An example will make this clear. The majority of dyslexic children experience confusion over the direction of ‘b’ and ‘d’. They can both be seen as a stick with a circle at its base. But on which side does the circle sit? A teacher might give the child a tactile (touchy/feely) experience of the letter ‘b’ by getting the child to draw the letter really large on the carpet. This will involve the child using their arms, their sense of balance, their whole body. They will remember the day their teacher had them 'writing' on the carpet with their hand making this great big shape, and can use that memory the next time they come to write the letter.

Some teachers purchase letters made out of sandpaper so that the children can run their fingers over the letter ‘b’, giving them a strong tactile memory. The thought of it sends a shiver down my spine!

Writing the letter ‘b’ in cursive handwriting on paper and with a big movement in the air puts a quite different slant on this letter. The letter starts on the line and rises to begin the down-stroke: there is nowhere else to put the circular bit but ahead of the down stroke.

Yet another way to give a strong tactile memory of ‘b’ is to make the letter out of plasticine, play-dough or clay.

A commonly used ‘trick’ to remember the direction of ‘b’ and ‘d’ is to show the child the word ‘bed’ on a card. This word begins with ‘b’ and ends with ‘d’, so that if you draw a bed over the letters, the upright part of ‘b’ will become the head of the bed, and the upright part of the ‘d’ will become the foot. You can draw a child lying on the bed to complete the picture. This gives a strong visual memory for the child to use each time the letter has to be written.

Dyslexia Online Magazine

You can also show the child how to hold up their index finger on each hand, with the thumb and second finger touching, making the word ‘bed’, but without the ‘e’. If they learn to do this, they can make this shape discretely with their fingers each time they need a reminder in class.

Dyslexia Online Magazine

The net result of these activities will be that a child has a visual memory from seeing the letter, an auditory memory from hearing the sound it makes, a tactile memory from writing the letter in cursive handwriting, in the air, and from touching the sandpaper letter, and a kinetic (body movement) memory from having drawn the letter really large on the carpet. Altogether a multisensory experience!

This tried and tested method has been used successfully for a long time, and its success lies in the fact that the dyslexic child is not limited to visual and auditory experiences but can make use of other areas of the brain in trying to establish clear memories of letters, words and numbers that are difficult to remember.


“b” “d” Confusion

We all know how common it is for children just beginning to read & write to have “b” “d” confusion. Here are a few fun activities to do with the students that will help many of them remember the difference.


“A line and circle is the letter “b”.

A circle and a line is the letter d.”

(PBS, Word World, 9/14/09)

Sing the song as you write each letter on the board.

Then, students sing the song as they write the letters.

After practicing “b” and “d”, as you write the letters make the word “bed”. Explain that the “b” is like a pillow in the bed. (See the word art below of “bed”).

Word World – The PBS Cartoon

Have you ever seen the PBS cartoon, Word World? They have an episode about “b” and “d” confusion entitled, Bed Bugs. If you are able to record Word World andwordartbed keep it on hand for specific lessons, it can be a fun way to supplement classroom lessons. I really wish they would offer an online archive of these episodes under specific lesson plan categories, such as “b” “d” confusion. They do have an episode about “b” “d” confusion. The characters actually made a bed (out of the letters) and sang the above song. Until an online archive of episodes is offered to teachers, recording episodes and keeping them in your classroom video library is a great idea.

They do offer online Word World Educational Games. I highly recommend saving this link for your students and using it during computer lab. Studying the games and assigning specific games depending on reading and writing assessment results can really help catapult students to the next level of learning. You could even assign specific games for homework! It may be helpful to put this link on your classroom website (if you have one).

Word Art

You can make words into art. For example, the word “cat” can actually become a cat.wordartcat

Here’s some “b” & “d” word art with sketches of each one:

  • dog
  • bed
  • bee
  • bug

When I was a child, I had learned how to make the cat. So, when I saw the Word World cartoon with my daughter it brought back memories of creating “word art”.

It will be fun to see if the kids are able to come up with some of their own words, too.

Feeling the Letters – Kinesthetic Learning

Help students identify lowercase letters and learn to correctly print them with these textured tracing cards. Green dots show where to begin tracing and red dots show where to stop. Directional arrows teach correct letter formation.


Share Your Ideas

If you have an idea about teaching “b” “d” or word art, feel free to share your ideas in the comments section.

Dan lagi...

Resolving b and dConfusion

The first is a strategy forresolving confusion between the letters b and d, a very common problem among both young and disabled readers. This material has been extracted from the full Stevenson Program but can be used separately. Click here.

The Group Game

The second item, the Group Game, is an excellent strategy for making sure that all students in a reading group are paying attention even if only one is reading aloud. Again, this strategy is built into the Stevenson Program, but could be used in any class. These resources will give you a small taste of our teaching techniques. Click here.

Additional Decoding Tests for Progress Monitoring.

These tests are designed to supplement the Mastery/Management Tests. They provide additional opportunities to assess the decoding skill of your Stevenson students. Currently many schools require teachers to monitor the progress of each student frequently to determine if a particular reading intervention is working, and these easy-to-administer tests will significantly increase the frequency with which assessments can be made. They are free, but only teachers who have already acquired the Beginning Green Level or the Basic Blue Level Mastery Management Test Manual and Test Booklet are given permission to use them. They are in PDF format and can be printed and photocopied.

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