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Selasa, Disember 30, 2008

It floats, it sinks

Angélique Boissonneault has a Bachelor's Degree in Biological Science. She has worked in a laboratory and tested her knowledge. She has taught Math, Chemistry, and Physics. She has also developed a simplistic and innovative approach designed to introduce young children to scientific experiments, old and new. She created her friend Globule. This character is sometimes red, and sometimes white. He guides little ones through their scientific experiments and discoveries. It is clear to see Angélique is passionate about children and science. Globule's Approach.

Globule wonders...Globule

Why do some objects float and other objects sink?


Experiment: It floats, it sinks

Material:

A large container filled with water
A cork
A Lego block
A pebble
A coin
A plastic spoon
A metal spoon
A nail
A rubber ball
A piece of cardboard
A piece of wood
Modeling dough (one piece rolled into a ball, another piece shaped like a bowl)


Manipulations:
1. Put all the objects your daycare worker selected for the experiment on the table.
2. Choose one and drop it into the water. Does it sink or float?
3. One at a time, place the objects in the water until there are none left.
4. As you go along, sort the objects into two piles, the objects which float and the objects which sink.
5. Look around for other objects you can experiment with.
6. Try to guess the result before dropping the objects into the water.

Explanations:
There is no rule as to which objects float and which objects sink. You probably noticed that some objects are big but still remain at the surface while other objects are very small but sink to the bottom. Some very heavy objects float (large ships) and light objects sink (a penny). The size or weight of objects does not determine whether they float or sink. The two characteristics must be considered together. The shape of an object plays an important role in regards to its buoyancy. The modeling dough rolled into a ball sinks whereas the modeling dough shaped like a bowl with thin sides, floats. Incredible isn't it?

Source: http://www.educatall.com/page/144/It-floats--it-sinks.html


Persediaan Sesi Persekolahan 2009

Assalamualaikum
Sesi persekolahan 2009 hanya tinggal beberapa hari sahaja lagi. Sudah pasti semua guru sudah mula pergi ke sekolah untuk mengemaskini kelas. Sebagai ibu bapa sudah pasti mereka akan sangat bersemangat untuk menghantar anak ke sekolah khususnya bagi ibu bapa yang baru pertama kali anaknya bersekolah. Suasana kelas anda akan memberikan gambaran positif mahupun negatif. Pendek kata pandang pertama sepatutnya akan menerbitkan rasa cinta.
Apa akan berlaku andai anda sebagai ibu bapa yang ingin meletakkan anak anda yang baru mula melangkah masuk ke sekolah dan mendapati kelas tersebut berada di dalam keadaan tidak terurus? Persoalan ini perlu anda fikirkan. First impression atau pandangan pertama boleh memberi seribu pentafsiran. Mahukah anda dikatakan guru yang malas? Guru yang tidak kreatif? Guru yang makan gaji buta? Tentulah jawapannya tidak.

Hmm... apakah agaknya persediaan awal yang perlu anda buat? Antara yang boleh dibuat adalah...

A. Pengurusan Murid
1. Alat permainan mencukupi untuk semua kanak-kanak untuk membuatkan mereka leka seketika agar ibu bapa boleh menyelinap keluar dari kelas. Kebiasaannya kanak-kanak akan menangis dan meraung. Jadi pastikan mereka leka seketika.
2. Bersedia dengan lagu-lagu dan cerita kanak-kanak sama ada guru bercerita sendiri atau memasang vcd yang sesuai.
3. Galakkan ibu bapa berada di luar kelas atau terus pulang selepas menghantar anak mereka. Ini untuk mengalakkan kanak-kanak mempunyai keyakinan diri untuk bersama rakan-rakan sebaya mereka.
4. Pastikan makanan yang bakal dimakan pada hari pertama mencukupi. Biasanya pembantu pengurusan murid tidak memasak pada hari pertama kerana dia perlu membantu guru mengawasi kanak-kanak yang beraneka ragam.
5. Minta ibu bapa membekalkan pakaian gantian yang bertanda nama sekiranya kanak-kanak terbuang air besar, air kecil atau muntah di kelas.
6. Sediakan marker pen untuk menulis tanda nama pada kasut kanak-kanak agar keadaan tidak menjadi kelam kabut sewaktu pulang.
7. Pastikan semua beg kanak-kanak mempunyai tanda nama agar kekecohan dapat dielakkan. Kanak-kanak biasanya akan menangis apabila beg mereka diambil oleh orang lain atau ada yang tidak mahu mengakui begnya sendiri jika beg itu serupa dengan rakan yang lain.
8. Setokin kanak-kanak mesti ditandakan supaya tidak tertukar atau mereka akan biarkan sahaja sehingga anda boleh membuat koleksi setokin busuk!.

B. Pengurusan Kelas
1. Pastikan kelas anda berada di dalam keadaan bersih dengan perabotnya tersusun rapi.
2. Pasanglah langsir lebih awal agar kelas kelihatan ceria seolah-olah anda ingin menyambut hari raya. Aura ceria akan membantu keyakinan diri kanak-kanak.
3. Pastikan tandas boleh digunakan dengan sempurna.
4. Lantai yang basah perlu sentiasa kering. Sediakan kain pengelap yang mencukupi supaya pembantu selesa bekerja andai ramai kanak-kanak yang terbuang air kecil atau muntah di kelas akibat ketakutan dan menangis melampau.

C. Pengurusan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
1. Pastikan anda menyediakan atau memiliki buku Rancangan Pelajaran Tahunan.


2. Menyediakan jadual waktu kelas.
3. Menyediakan carta organisasi Majlis Pemuafakatan Ibu Bapa, senarai nama kanak-kanak yang lengkap dengan alamat dan nombor telefon yang mudah dihubungi sekiranya kecemasan.
4. Menyediakan pelan tindakan strategik ( bagi guru Negeri Johor diwajibkan menyediakan pelan tindakan berkenaan )

D. Pengurusan Kewangan
1. Menyediakan perancangan perbelanjaan barangan basah dan kering.
2. Mengemaskini akaun penerimaan dan perbelanjaan kelas.

E. Penampilan Diri Guru dan Pembantu Pengurusan Murid
Berdasarkan maklumat yang diterima, etika berpakaian perlu dipatuhi semasa bekerja. Penampilan yang kemas dan menarik amat penting untuk menarik perhatian kanak-kanak. Bersedialah dengan emosi yang stabil semasa menyambut kedatangan kanak-kanak dan ibu bapa mereka dengan senyuman dan layanan mesra. Ceriakan diri anda agar orang lain juga ceria. Ambil berat dan beri perhatian sewajarnya kepada semua kanak-kanak tanpa memilih latarbelakang sosial mereka. Aura kasih sayang yang anda tunjukkan akan membantu anda mengawal perjalanan kelas. Puji atau cium atau peluk mereka. Pelukan yang mesra akan membuatkan kanak-kanak sentiasa dekat dengan anda.

Demikianlah antara keperluan yang sempat saya fikirkan untuk kita sediakan bersama. Semoga maklumat awal ini akan membantu meningkatkan imej dan profesion perguruan kita.



Selasa, Disember 16, 2008

Cinnamon Dough

½ cup of ground cinnamon
½ cup of applesauce
1 "Ziploc" bag
1 straw
Cookie cutters
Ribbon

1. Place cinnamon and applesauce in the "Ziploc" bag.
2. Seal the bag and knead the mixture until the dough forms.
3. Use a rolling pin to roll the dough until it is 1 cm thick.
4. Use cookie cutters to make shapes or use your imagination.
5. Use the straw to make a hole at the top of the decoration (for the ribbon).
6. Dry for 24 hours. (The shape must be hard)
7. Attach a ribbon and hang from the tree. It will smell terrific for several weeks!

Source : http://www.educatall.com/page/134/Cinnamon-Dough.html

Salt Water

Angélique Boissonneault has a Bachelor's Degree in Biological Science. She has worked in a laboratory and tested her knowledge. She has taught Math, Chemistry, and Physics. She has also developed a simplistic and innovative approach designed to introduce young children to scientific experiments, old and new. She created her friend Globule. This character is sometimes red, and sometimes white. He guides little ones through their scientific experiments and discoveries. It is clear to see Angélique is passionate about children and science. Globule's Approach.

Globule wonders...

Why do we float in the ocean?Globule


Experiment: Salt water

Hypotheses:


Ask children if they know the difference between the ocean (salt water) and a lake or river (fresh water). You can ask them who has gone swimming in the ocean, in a lake, in a river, in a swimming pool, in a bathtub...


Material:

An egg
A large transparent glass
4 to 6 tablespoons of salt
A spoon

Manipulations:
1. Pour water in the glass until it is ¾ full.
2. Delicately deposit the egg in the glass. Watch what happens. The egg sinks to the bottom.
3. Remove the egg from the glass.
4. Add the salt to the water and stir.
5. Once again, delicately deposit the egg in the glass. Look, this time it floats!

Explanations:
Even if we cannot see it, salt takes up lots of space in the water. It does not leave room for the egg. The egg is unable to penetrate the water so it remains on the surface.


Source: http://www.educatall.com/page/137/Salt-water.html

Sabtu, Disember 13, 2008

Permainan Tradisional

11 Dec 08, 19:42
Mirza: Yg dihormati Kak G, saya sedang mencari bahan untuk assignment mengenai permainan tradisional yang sesuai dengan pembelajaran kanak-kanak.Boleh beri idea....

Amboi bersopan betul Mirza ni. Formal sangat nampaknya. Lain kali tak payahlah tulis yang dihormati tu... sebijik macam budak sekolah nak masuk bertanding pidato. Jangan marah... gurau je. Hmm... tengah fikir ni... Semalam tak boleh jawab sebab sakit kepala sepanjang pagi pastu badan panas terasa macam nak demam. Habis semua anak-anak kena kerahan tenaga picit kepala dan kaki maknya. Biasalah bila ada anak-anak di rumah waktu cuti begini. Mereka semua dah besar dan hanya berperap di rumah. Itulah anak moden sekarang, waktu cuti begini tahunya menghadap komputer. Saya masih ingat masa mereka kecil-kecil dahulu, kalau anak lelaki akak belikan kereta, habis dileraikannya. Kalau anak perempuan pula, anak patung habis disembelih kepala, tangan dan kaki. Anak-anak lebih banyak bermain di dalam rumah tetapi anak saya jarang dapat bermain mainan kerana jarang dibelikan. Yalah waktu itu zaman kemelesetan ekonomi. Kami bergaji kecil. Waktu itu gaji permulaan kami hanya RM345 sebulan dan terpaksa menanggung persekolahan adik-adik seramai 7 orang. Bagi saya waktu itu pelajaran lebih utama memandangkan kami hidup sukar. Jadi anak-anak lebih didedahkan kepada buku-buku berbanding alat permainan.



Bercerita tentang permainan kanak-kanak, lihat latar belakang hidup mereka. Seperti kisah anak-anak saya yang mengalami kesukaran di zaman kanak-kanak, permainan bagi mereka tidak ditekankan tetapi lebih kepada memanfaatkan kewangan yang ada untuk menambah ilmu. Zaman kanak-kanak saya juga berbeza. Semasa kecil saya tidak dapat bermain anak patung kerana tinggal dengan nenek di mana nenek saya amat pentingkan pendidikan. Jadual waktu cuti saya hanya dipenuhi dengan membaca atau membantu nenek di rumah. Hanya sesekali saya berpeluang bermain di luar rumah itupun hanya di dalam kawasan pagar rumah! Permainan saya adalah congkak yang dibuat dengan menggali tanah di bawah pokok rambutan, roundes (ejaan betul ke tu?), belon acah dan permainan polis dan pencuri. Kalau berpeluang keluar dari pagar rumah, saya dan sepupu akan berjogging hingga ke kaki gunung atau berkhemah di tepi hutan di hadapan rumah nenek. Semua itu bergantung kepada keizinan nenek. Ada kalanya saya mencuri-curi keluar semata-mata kerana ingin bermain air di sungai di mana saya dan kawan-kawan akan membuat empangan dengan mengorek tanah sungai untuk didalamkan. Kami seronok bermain menahan nafas di dalam air atau mencuba mengapungkan diri.

Kenapa saya ceritakan hal pengalaman hidup saya dan anak-anak? Sebagai guru sebenarnya kita mesti mengkaji latarbelakang kehidupan murid-murid supaya memudahkan kita menjalankan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Pengalaman sedia ada murid amat penting untuk memudahkan aliran pengajaran kita. Tidaklah nanti mereka melopong sepanjang masa tanpa memberi respon sepatutnya. Sebagai guru kita mesti cuba menyelami dunia kanak-kanak. Melihat dan mencuba permainan yang mereka ada sesuai dengan aliran masa. Ada kalanya sesuatu permainan itu menjadi tidak sesuai dengan umur mereka. Misalnya cebisan puzzle untuk dicantum perlu sesuai dengan umur kanak-kanak. Sekiranya kita memberi puzzle yang banyak untuk dicantum, sudah pasti kanak-kanak akan bosan dan hilang tumpuan.

Pemilihan jenis permainan yang sesuai dengan kanak-kanak dan langkah-langkah keselamatan perlu diutamakan sekiranya ingin dijalankan di kelas prasekolah. Antara permainan yang boleh atau biasa dijalankan adalah congkak, batu seremban, guli, teng teng, membuat layang-layang atau wau. Permainan bulu ayam atau chapteh jarang dimainkan kerana kanak-kanak belum mempunyai kemahiran motor yang tinggi. Perlu diingatkan bahawa permainan yang dipilih perlu sesuai dengan objektif pengajaran pada hari itu. Kalau sekadar ingin memperkenalkan seni permainan tradisional yang agak aggresif cukup sekadar menayangkan video klip atau gambar kepada kanak-kanak.

Kesimpulannya dalam membuat pemilihan permainan kanak-kanak perkara utama yang perlu difikirkan adalah kesesuaian dengan objektif, kawalan keselamatan, tahap umur dan kebolehan kanak-kanak.

Khamis, Disember 11, 2008

Merancang Perbelanjaan Kelas

10 Dec 08, 22:49
su: sy rs k.Gee kena bg panduan cara merancang perbelanjaan utk anggaran bhan basah kering sbb sy tak tahu pun itu kena buat?


Macamana ya nak buat? Hah bagi guru-guru yang baru mengajar di kelas prasekolah mesti pening lalat bila guru besar meminta anda merancang perbelanjaan bahan basah. Apatah lagi kalau anda sendiri tidak pernah ambil kisah membeli barang basah di pasar. Hahaha saya pun boleh dikira dengan jari dalam setahun ke pasar kerana sebenarnya semuanya itu dibuat oleh ayah dan suami!. Namun bila sudah menceburkan diri dalam bidang prasekolah ini bermakna anda kena lakukan juga. Apa nak susah, ambillah masa anda hujung minggu untuk buat survey harga barangan di pasar. Susahkah? Sambil ke pasar sambil cuci mata bagi yang bujang teruna dengan makcik-makcik di pasar. Hmm manalah tahu ada makcik yang sedang cari calon menantu berkenan pula kat anda.

Berbalik kepada cara merancang perbelanjaan bahan basah... kalau anda tidak berkesempatan ke pasar, minta sahaja pembantu pengurusan murid membuatnya sebab tugas ini juga termasuk di dalam bidang tugas mereka. Saya akan menyenaraikan urutan kerja supaya mudah anda membuatnya:
1. Lawatan ke pasar untuk mengkaji senarai harga barangan basah atau minta kedai yang sudah dipilih untuk membekalkan bahan basah secara tetap ke sekolah menyenaraikan harga barangan mereka.
2. Lihat menu harian kelas anda. Senaraikan apakah barangan basah yang mesti digunakan semasa memasak menu tersebut. Berbincanglah dengan PPM sebab dia yang akan memasak. Kalau PPM tidak tahu masak, eh macam mana pula kalau tidak pandai masak? Minta dia cari resipi dan suruh dia belajar memasak masakan yang ada di dalam menu. Hai tak kan lah masak mee pun tak pandai. Menu di prasekolah semuanya mudah. Tidak ada alasan PPM tidak tahu memasaknya.
3. Buat anggaran bahan basah yang diperlukan untuk menu 25 orang kanak-kanak. Biasanya masakan yang dimasak hanya separuh kuali besar atau bersamaan hidangan 10 orang dewasa.
4. Buat anggaran untuk seminggu dahulu. Minta izin dengan guru besar untuk menangguhkan anggaran perbelanjaan untuk seminggu kerana anda perlu membuat kajian. Setelah anda memperoleh perbelanjaan seminggu hanya darabkan dengan minggu bagi bulan-bulan persekolahan.
5. Oleh kerana ini adalah anggaran perbelanjaan, maka berkemungkinan kos perbelanjaan tidak menepati setepat-tepatnya. Apa yang penting anda tidak berbelanja melebihi peruntukan makan murid sebanyak RM1.50 sehari yang didarab dengan 25 orang murid.
6. Ada kalanya kita terpaksa menolak beberapa perbelanjaan bahan basah apabila kanak-kanak tidak menyukai menu tersebut. Ingat, masak makanan yang disukai kanak-kanak bukan makanan yang guru atau pembantu suka. Adalah lebih baik masak menu yang sama daripada ianya masuk ke bakul sampah. Saya masih ingat mula-mula menghidangkan air Horlick kepada murid saya. Saya membuat 1 jag besar tapi bila tiba waktu minum, ianya terpaksa dicurah ke sinki sebab mereka tidak suka. Begitu juga bila membuat mee hoon. Mereka hanya makan sedikit dan separuh mee yang tinggal di kuali terpaksa dibuang sebab cikgu sendiri pun tidak larat nak habiskan!. Oleh itu kita kena fikirkan atau buat kajian terhadap selera kanak-kanak.

Perancangan ini boleh dimulakan di bulan Disember dengan bantuan Pembantu Pengurusan Murid. Selamat mencuba.


Rabu, Disember 10, 2008

Lagu Kanak-kanak

Dari laporan nuffnang.com, saya dapati ramai yang menaip keyword lagu kanak-kanak. Memang lagu kanak-kanak ni agak sukar diperolehi terutamanya lagu kanak-kanak versi Bahasa Melayu. Kalau Bahasa Inggeris... alahai melambak-lambak. Macam mana nak buat ya bila nak mengajar di awal tahun nanti bila kanak-kanak mula meragam. Lagu apa yang nak dinyanyikan supaya keadaan kelas dapat dikawal dengan baik. Huh...pening kepala guru-guru prasekolah yang baru posting. Bagi guru-guru veteran macam saya ni rasanya tidaklah sukar sangat. Saya sebenarnya sedang menanti kelulusan Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka untuk mengedarkan CD interaktif yang telah saya siapkan hampir dua tahun lepas. Di dalam CD itu kelak akan dimasukkan lagu kanak-kanak yang saya reka sendiri, lembaran kerja Bahasa Melayu dan Matematik, kraftangan dan cerita kanak-kanak.

Sementara itu jom kita lihat lirik lagu-lagu yang sempat saya cari...

Bapaku Pulang

Bapaku pulang dari kota
Bapaku belikan kereta
Kereta kecil warna merah
Akan kubawa ke sekolah

Ponponponponpon ponpon ponpon
Kereta kecil ku berbunyi
Marilah adik mari naik
Boleh kubawa jumpa nenek

Air pasang pagi


Air pasang pagi
surut pukul lima,
nyonya bangun pagi
siram pokok bunga,

Pokok bunga melur
tanam tepi kolam,

Itik bertelur
ayam mengeram


Ikan kekek


ikan kekek mak iloi, iloi,
ikan gelama mak ilai, ilai,
sungguh cantik adikku amboi,
tapi ketawa mengilai-ngilai.
Ikan kekek mak iloi, iloi,
ikan gelama mak ilai, ilai,
kalau adik nak jadi pandai,
mari belajar, janganlah lalai.
Ikan kekek hoi !,
ikan kekek.......


MusicPlaylistRingtones
Create a playlist at MixPod.com





CD Lembaran Kerja

Berikut adalah beberapa contoh lembaran kerja yang dimuatkan dalam cd lembaran kerja yang telah saya sediakan. Semua bahan ini telah saya cetak untuk didokumentasikan di kelas.Tema anggota badan ini pula masih dalam proses penyediaan. Memandangkan saya sangat sibuk sekarang, bahan ini terpaksa disimpan dahulu. Mungkin di awal tahun ini baru dapat disiapkan sepenuhnya terutamanya bila saya hendak gunakan bahan ini di kelas.

Ingin Tahu

assalamualaikum...............kak g saya student kdc pra b iptho ingin bertanya tentang teknik2 pembelajaran prasekolah iaitu maklumbalas dan mendengar???
definisi dan contoh2 aktiviti2................ Eyna Sholleh

Begitu bunyi email dari seorang pelajar saya. Setakat yang saya faham ialah kemahiran mendengar. Teknik maklumbalas tidaklah saya ketahui. Apa pun saya cuba bantu di sini setakat yang boleh. Sekiranya tidak menepati, harap Eyna dapat menyesuaikannya dengan kehendak pensyarah beliau ya.

Saya temui ini di sini...

How To Improve Your Preschooler’s Listening Skills

It is infuriating when it feels like your child ignores the directions that you have given. As a parent, it’s frustrating to feel like your child doesn’t have the listening skills that she needs to be able to understand, remember and act upon what you have told her. But this is a normal part of the development process and one of the reasons that parents of preschoolers require wells of patience in order to assist their children in growing up with normal, healthy development. You not only want to teach your child good listening skills so that she can do what you say needs to be done but you also want to make sure she has those skills so that she will do well in school, get along with peers and be able to engage in appropriate social behavior in groups.

Here are some tips to improve your preschooler’s listening skills and to get her well on the way to being able to understand what’s said to her and to act upon it appropriately.

  • Model good listening skills. Often, when our preschoolers babble on about their days, we go on automatic pilot with our responses. Model good listening skills by paying attention to the stories that your child tells you and asking engaging questions about them.
  • Play listening games with your child. Simon Says is a common listening game which requires children to pay attention to the words being said. Many computer games are now available which can help you with this.
  • Play rhyming games. Rhyming is something which requires listening skills because your child has to work to identify sounds that sound the same. As your preschooler gets old enough to recognize rhymes, rhyming games will help with developing those listening skills.
  • Read aloud to your child every single day. Reading to your children helps them on many different levels, including improving their listening skills. Engage your child in the reading process to make sure that she is actively listening. You can do this by asking questions, having her add on to the story or seeing if she can memorize parts of her favorite tales.
  • Show your child how to use all of her senses. Explain about the five senses and give her ample opportunity to use each of them. For example, at the zoo you can ask your child what she sees, smells, and hears from certain animals. This will not only give her good listening skills but will hone her other senses and help her to develop a greater capacity for attention to details.
  • Talk with your child. Simply engaging in regular conversation with you on a regular basis will teach your child listening skills.
  • Use multi-step directions. When your preschooler is young, you often have to direct her with single-step tasks such as “pick up your toys”. As she gets older, you can add multi-step tasks (“pick up your toys and then put your shoes on”) so that she can develop the attention to listening to multi-step directions and following them.

Listening skills are something that your child is going to use for the rest of her life. They will be the cornerstone of communication in positive relationships, the basis for strong academic skills and the foundation of her ability to work with others in all situations. Bear in mind that it’s part of your job as a parent to exercise patience in teaching her these skills so that she can be a better listener for the rest of her life.


Juga yang sempat saya temui adalah Active Learning dari http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/active.html

The Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education

A group of scholars of higher education were asked for a set of principles that could improve learning. Their findings boiled down to one key concept, "Effective teachers demonstrate more implementation of learner-centered domains of practice than less effective teachers" (Fasko, Grubb, McCombs & McCombs, 1993)

From this study, Chickering and Gamson (1997) formulated The Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education:

  1. Encourage contacts between students and faculty.
  2. Develop reciprocity and cooperation among students.
  3. Use active learning techniques.
  4. Give prompt feedback.
  5. Emphasize time on task.
  6. Communicate high expectations.
  7. Respect diverse talents and ways of learning.

Learner-Centered Principles

A set of Learner-Centered Principles for Training (Ellis, Wagner, & Longmire, 1999) were created to help with the learning process. They are based on the work of Barbara McCombs (1992):
  • Learning does not occur in a vacuum. Learners discover and construct meaning from information and experience based on their unique perceptions, thoughts and feelings.
  • More information doesn't necessarily mean more learning. Learners seek to create meaningful uses of knowledge regardless of the quantity and quality information presented.
  • Learners link new knowledge to existing information in ways that make sense to them. The remembering of new knowledge is facilitated when it can be tied to a learner's current knowledge.
  • Personality influences learning. Learners have varying degrees of self-confidence and differ in the clarity of their personal goals and expectations for success and failure.
  • Learners want to learn. Individuals are naturally curious and enjoy learning, but personal insecurity and fear of failure often get in the way.
  • Learners like challenges and are most creative when it is challenging and meets their individual needs.
  • Learners are individuals. Not all learners are at the same stage of physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development. Learners also differ in their cultural backgrounds. Although the basic principles of learning apply to all learners regardless of these differences, trainers must take into account such differences between learners.
  • The learning environment is important. Learners learn best in a friendly, socially interactive and diverse environment.
  • Learners like positive reinforcement. Learning environments that support the self-esteem and respect of the individual learner tend to be more successful.
  • Past experience matters. Personal beliefs and impressions from prior learning color the learners' world views and their approach to learning.

Andragogy

The Andragogic Learning Model recognizes several facets to learning (Knowles, 1973):
  • Learners are problem centered rather than content centered.
  • Instructors permit and encourage the active participation of the learners.
  • Instructors encourage the learner to introduce past experiences into the learning process in order to reexamine that experience in the light of new data.
  • The climate of learning must be collaborative (instructor-to-learner and learner-to-learner) as opposed to authority-oriented.
  • The learning environment (planning, conducting, evaluating) is a mutual activity between learner and instructor.
  • Evaluation leads to appraisal of needs and interests and therefore to the redesign of new learning activities.
  • Activities are experimental, not "transmittal and absorption."
Thus, the primary function of the instructor is to become a guide to the process of learning, not a manager of content. The "learning guide" uses two-way communication to establish the objectives and methods of the learning process.

Process of Learning

The three models discussed above emphasize the importance involving the learners in the training and learning process. Such a model would look similar to this:

The Process of Learning Model (Laird D. 1985)

A learning organization is a place where people are continually discovering how they create their reality. And how they can change it. - Peter Senge

Notice how The Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education, the set of Learner-Centered Principles for Training, and the Andragogic Learning Model all tie into The Process of Learning Model:

  1. A climate for Active learning
    • Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students (Seven Principles)
    • Learning does not occur in a vacuum (Learner-Centered Principles)
    • Learners want to learn (Learner-Centered Principles)
    • The learning environment is important (Learner-Centered Principles)
    • They encourage the learner to introduce past experiences into the process in order to reexamine that experience in the light of new data (Andragogic Learning Model)
  2. A structure for mutual planning
    • Encourages contacts between students and Faculty (Seven Principles)
    • Personality influences learning (Learner-Centered Principles)
    • Learners like challenges (Learner-Centered Principles)
    • The learning environment (planning, conducting, evaluating) is a mutual activity between learner and instructor (Andragogic Learning Model)
  3. Learners' needs, interests, and values
    • Respects diverse talents and ways of learning (Seven Principles)
    • Learners link new knowledge to existing information in ways that make sense to the learner (Learner-Centered Principles)
    • Learners are individuals (Learner-Centered Principles)
    • They are problem centered rather than content centered (Andragogic Learning Model)
  4. Formulation of objectives
    • Communicates high expectations (Seven Principles)
    • The climate of learning must be collaborative (instructor-to-learner and learner-to-learner) as opposed to authority-oriented (Andragogic Learning Model)
  5. Designs for learning
    • Uses active learning techniques (Seven Principles)
    • Past Experience Matters (Learner-Centered Principles)
    • Activities are experimental, not "transmittal and absorption" (Andragogic Learning Model)
  6. Carrying out the design
    • Emphasizes time on task (Seven Principles)
    • More information doesn't necessarily mean more learning (Learner-Centered Principles)
    • The permit and encourage the active participation of the learner (Andragogic Learning Model)
  7. Mutual evaluation, leading to reappraisal and revision of the learning objectives
    • Gives prompt feedback (Seven Principles)
    • Learners like positive reinforcement (Learner-Centered Principles)
    • Evaluation leads to appraisal of needs and interests and therefore to redesign and new learning activities (Andragogic Learning Model)

Most of us only know how to be taught, we haven't learned how to learn. - Malcom Knowles

This active process of learner involvement differs from the conventional hierarchical instruction model where those who know, teach those who do not know. Active learning is not only a new experience for some instructors, but also a new experience for some learners. Since these learners might have not of encountered this type of learning or perhaps had a prior negative experience, special attention might be needed. For example, one study found that learners respond differently to a visiting instructor simply based on receiving information prior to the lecture that indicated if the instructor was a "cold" or a "warm" person (Kelley, 1952). While everyone experienced the same learning method in the same room at the same time, those who had been primed to expect a warm instructor participated more in the discussion and subsequently rated the instructor more positively than those who had expected a cold person. This finding suggests that individuals look for evidence to confirm their prior expectations.

This is known as preframing, which is the attitudes and beliefs that learners bring into a learning environment. Preframes come from other learners, supervisors, past experience, culture, etc. With regard to learner involvement, it is important to note that the learner's expectations and past history are likely to influence their reaction to the type of learning being presented. Those that have had good experiences with past learning experiences that allowed them to become involved will have a more positive attitude than others with negative experiences.

If it was so, it might be; and if it were so, it would be; but as it isn't, it ain't. That's logic. - Lewis Carroll

A Climate for Learning

Learning is enhanced when it is more like a team effort than a solo race. Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated. Working with others often increases involvement in learning. Sharing one's ideas and responding to others improves thinking and deepens understanding. - Chickering & Gamson (1997)

There are three general types of learning groups: informal learning, formal learning, and study teams (Johnson, Johnson, and Smith, 1991):
  • Informal learning groups are "off the cuff" clustering of learners within a single class session, e.g. asking the learners to turn to a neighbor and spend two minutes discussing a question you have posed. These informal groups are formed to check on the learners' understanding of the material, to give them an opportunity to apply what they are learning, or to provide a change of pace.
  • Formal learning groups are established to complete a specific task, such as perform a lab experiment, write a report, carry out a project, or prepare a position paper. These groups may complete their work in a single class session or over several days. The learners work together until the task is finished.
  • Study teams are long-term groups with stable membership whose primary responsibility is to provide members with support, encouragement, and assistance in completing course requirements and assignments. Study teams also inform their members about lectures and assignments when someone has missed a session. The larger the class and the more complex the subject matter, the more valuable study teams can be.
Also, the process that these learning group uses falls into two different camps:
  • Cooperative learning involves the more conventional notion of cooperation, in that learners work in small groups on an assigned project or problem under the guidance of the facilitator who monitors the groups, making sure the learners are staying on task and are coming up with the correct answers (if there is a right or a best answer).
  • Collaborative learning is a more radical departure. It involves learners working together in small groups to develop their own answer through interaction and reaching consensus, not necessarily a known answer. Monitoring the groups or correcting "wrong" impressions is not the role of the facilitator since there is no authority on what the answer should be.
Achieving a climate for learning can be accomplished by:
  • Breaking the class into small groups
  • Keep people moving around from group to group/person to person
  • Have activities and projects outside the classroom for group participation
  • Developing teams
  • Peer tutoring
  • Encouraging the learners to study together
  • Encouraging the learners to answer each other's questions instead of answering them yourself
  • Have learners teach all or part of a lesson
  • Be a model by asking questions and displaying good listening behaviors

A Structure for Mutual Planning

Frequent student-faculty contact in and out of class is a most important factor in student motivation and involvement. Faculty concern helps students get through rough times and keep on working. Knowing a few faculty members well enhances students' intellectual commitment and encourages them to think about their own values and plans. - Chickering & Gamson (1997)

Large-scale correlational studies conclude that students who have frequent contact with faculty members in and out of class are better satisfied with their educational experience, less likely to drop out, and perceive themselves to have learned more than students with less faculty contact (Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991).

Some methods of mutual planning are:

  • Using a one-on-one approach to assessing the learner's requirements
  • Personalizing feedback on learner assignment
  • Open-door policy
  • Email
  • Staying for after-class conversations
  • Mentoring
  • Learning student's names
  • Telephone access
  • Frequent question and answer periods

Learners' Needs, Interests, and Values

Many roads lead to learning. Different students bring different talents and styles to college. Brilliant students in a seminar might be all thumbs in a lab or studio; students rich in hands-on experience may not do so well with theory. Students need opportunities to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Then they can be pushed to learn in new ways that do not come so easily. - Chickering & Gamson (1997)

Learners' needs can be met by:
  • Utilizing multimedia presentations that engage the learners.
  • Providing outside of the classroom activities (field trips).
  • Giving the learners a problem to solve that has multiple solutions.
  • Changing the media or delivery method frequently.
  • Identifying a variety of learning opportunities for each module.
  • Explaining theory from a "practical approach" first and then adding the structural approach.

Formulation of Objectives

Expect more and you will get it. High expectations are important for everyone — for the poorly prepared, for those unwilling to exert themselves, and for the bright and well motivated. Expecting students to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. - Chickering & Gamson (1997)

Due to certain training requirements, learning objectives are often required. However, by focusing on the learners' needs, rather than just the training program's needs, you can get the learners involved with the achievement of the objectives:
  • Although a lot of learning is developmental and cannot be easily defined, work with each learner to set as complete a learning goal or objective as possible — what is the task to be learned, how will it be learned, how will they know it has been learned.
  • Assign realistic time values for each objective or learning point. If the total time is greater than the time you have, adjust accordingly, such as self-study for the less critical learning points.

Designs for Active Learning

Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just sitting in classes listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write reflectively about it, relate it to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves - Chickering & Gamson (1997)

The U.S. Department of Education and the National Institute of Education highlighted student involvement as one of three critical conditions for excellence in education, noting that "It is only the amount of time one can allocate for learning but the quality of effort within that time makes the difference. . . quality of effort refers to the extent to which learning is active rather than passive and colleges clearly can control the conditions of active learning by expecting students to be participants in, rather than spectators of, the learning process" (U.S. Department of Education 1984:18-19).

"Students learn best when they are actively involved in the process. Researchers report that, regardless of the subject matter, students working in small groups tend to learn more of what is taught and retain it longer than when the same content is presented in other instructional formats. Students who work in collaborative groups also appear more satisfied with their classes" (Cross cited these sources: Beckman, 1990; Chickering & Gamson, 1991; Collier, 1980; Cooper and Associates, 1990; Goodsell, Maher, Tinto, and Associates, 1992; Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 1991; Kohn, 1986; McKeachie, Pintrich, Lin, and Smith, 1986; Slavin, 1980, Slavin, 1983; Whitman, 1988).

To help achieve an active learning design:

  • Set up problem solving activities in small groups and have each group discuss with class.
  • Get feedback on what activities help the students to learn.
  • Encourage reflection (e.g. learning journals).
  • Encourage learners to challenge ideas, the ideas of other students, or those presented in readings or other course materials (note that "challenging" is not flaming each other).
  • Give learners concrete, real-life situations to analyze.
  • Encourage students to suggest new readings, projects, or course activities. The learning environment needs to be dynamic, not passive.

Carrying out the Active Learning Design

Time plus energy equals learning. Learning to use one's time well is critical for students and professionals alike. Allocating realistic amounts of time means effective learning for students and effective teaching for faculty - Chickering & Gamson 1997)

Carrying out a plan or design, if often the hardest part, but the most enjoyable:
  • Ensure that time spent on a task is real learning, not busy work.
  • Understand that there will be problems and changes along the way — plan for them.
  • Identify key concepts and how those will be taught.
  • Active learning, not passive, should always be stressed.
  • Expect learners to participate (preframing).
  • Try to make the assignments interesting. The more interesting, the more involved the learners become.
  • Blend two types of knowledge: theoretical and everyday-lived.
  • Ask learners to comment on what they are doing. This helps to reinforce the learning experience.

Mutual Evaluation, Leading to Reappraisal and Revision of the Learning Objectives

Knowing what you know and don't know focuses your learning. In getting started, students need help in assessing their existing knowledge and competence. Then, in classes, students need frequent opportunities to perform and receive feedback on their performance. At various points during college, and at its end, students need chances to reflect on what they have learned, what they still need to know, and how they might assess themselves - Chickering & Gamson (1997).

Each learner differs in his or her need for achievement and how success and failure is perceived. These differences tend to affect individual motivation and persistence at a task. Individual motivation and persistence is affected by how one makes attributions for success and failure (Weiner, 1986). For example, one can attribute success to something about oneself or something about the environment. Learners who credit themselves for success, tend to have higher motivation and persist longer at tasks as they believe they have control over success or failure and thus greater persistence should lead to success.

The goal of any training intervention should be to facilitate these types of attributions as they increase the desire to learn and make use of the training:

  • Grade on a criteria based system by using a range of test questions (using a curve is ok).
  • Provide constructive criticism when necessary, but provide praise/input as often as possible.
  • Provide plenty of question and answer sessions.
  • Use exams that give fast feedback.
  • Relate lessons to real life experiences.
  • Videos can be used to help the learner critique his or her own performance.
  • The trainer or other students can react to a writer's draft using the "hidden text" option available in word processors: Turned on, the hidden comments spring up; turned off, the comments recede and the writer's prized work is again free of red ink.
  • Celebrate success!